Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. It deals with various physical and biological factors-including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control and climate-related to crop production. Agronomy involves the process of selective breeding of plants in order to produce the best yield of crops under different conditions.

Cropping System: The cropping pattern used on a farm and its interaction with farm resources, other farm enterprises, and available technology which determine their make up.

Cropping systems followed under Phek district :
Crop rotations followed

Maize+Beans+Naga dal+Cowpea

Paddy- pea
Crop sequences followed
Maize-Beans-pea (Jhum area)
Inter- cropping done
No intercropping followed
Mixed cropping done 

Mixed cropping of various     

agricultural and horticultural crops viz: Maize +Beans +Cabbage +Tree tomato+ Cowpea + chilly
Catch crops grown

Maize followed by pea

Agronomical practices include all management practices required for raising crops either in isolation or in rotations. Agronomic practices involve: land preparation, application of manures, scheduling and application of irrigation, and methods of plant protection including weed management, plant population management and crop geometry. These practices are affected by the soil types, climate and socio-economic status.

Details of Important agronomical crops grown under Phek district:

Sl.No Principal Crops Area(in ha) Production tones(MT) Productivity Kg/ha)
I. A. Cereals
1 Jhum Paddy 794 1342 1690.10
2 TRC Paddy 1305 2120 1624.4
3 Maize 955 1599 1674.3
4 Wheat 150 130 866.6
5 Small Millet 326 228 699.38
6 Jowar 120 90 750.00
Total Cereals : 34070 53110 1558.84
II. B. Pulses
1. Arhar 520 610 1173.07
2. Nagadal 470 570 1212.76
3. Kholar 110 140 1272.72
4. Black Gram 40 50 1250.00
5. Moong 90 110 1222.20
6. Gram 70 90 1285.71
7. Pea 1220 1470 1204.91
8. lentil 390 470 1205.12
9. Beans 220 280 1272.72
10. Other rabi pulses 640 780 1218.75
11. Other kharif 370 460 1243.24
  Total Pulses : 4140 5030 1214.97
III. C. Oilseeds
1. Soybean 2120 2560 1207.54
2. Sesamum 640 420 656.25
3. Groundnut 160 170 1062.50
4. Mustard 2030 1440 709.35





6. Linseed 950 600 631.57
  Total Oilseeds 6150 5360 871.54
IV. D. Commercial crop
1 Potato 460 4090 8891.30

  Trust Area Identified
1 Introduction of high yielding varieties of cereals, pulses and oilseeds.
2 Introduction of high yielding varieties of potato
3 Awareness on improved package and practices for higher production
4 Awareness on the importance of Integrated farming system for all round year income
5 Proper contingency plans for drought situations Crop Pest Recommendation Disease Recommendation
1 Paddy Stem borer, gundhi bug, leaf folder, leaf and plant hopper, case worm Release Trichogramma egg parasitoids @ 50,000/ha after 30DAT. Blast, brown spot, stem rot, false smut, sheath blight Resistant variety, destroy the infected stubbles by burning or deep ploughing
2 Maize Stem borer, leaf roller, cob borer, cutworms field crickets Spraying Neemore or limanool @ 3ml/lit at the silking stage. Downy mildew, leaf blight  
3 Soybean Leaf folder, stem fly, leaf miner, pod borer Spraying of Entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema sp) @ 5million/ha after 45 DAS Rust, yellow mosaic  
4 Groundnut Leaf miner, white grub, pod borer


Spraying of Entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema sp) @ 5million/ha before sowing. Tikka, rust

bavistin 2gm/lt  water
6 Field pea Pod borer, cut worm   Powdery mildew Sulphex @ 2gm/lt water
7 Potato Cut worm, red ant, white grub, potato tuber moth Phor ate and dusting with ash Late blight, early blight, wart disease

Spray 1 % bordeux mixture,
Avoid water stagnation

OFT-FLD Programme on Ground Nut:

Groundnut is an important crop which serves as a nutritional food for all age groups. In Phek district groundnut is not a new crop, the farmers are keen to cultivate but due to lack of availability of quality seeds they seldom cultivate groundnut. However in the year 2008, KVK Phek introduced a groundnut variety (JL 24) where an OFT was conducted in the same year. The performance was good and hence in the next year an FLD programme was taken up in farmersí field in 2009 for popularization of this variety. Thr cro was sown on 7/5/09 and harvested on 20/9/09. The growth and yield parameters were recorded at an interval of 30 days. The results revealed that the plant attained an average height of 50.90 cm and pod/plant was 21.20 at maturity. The total yield was 19.20 qtl/ha. Economics calculated is below:

Average cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) = Rs. 51840.00
Average Gross return (Rs/ha) = Rs. 186200.00
Average Net return (Rs/ha) = Rs. 134360.00
B:C = 3.59

The feedback from the farmers revealed that the crop performed very well and that the incidences of pest and diseases were not seen during the crop period. The farmers use groundnut for preparing local products and also consume as roasted peanuts.